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Vibrio

General information:
Gram-negative, part of the family Vibrionaceae, which is also includes the genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas.
V. cholerae is one of several medically important species, the others being V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus.
Characteristics:
V. cholerae is well recoginzed and extensively studied as the causative agent of the human intestinal disease cholera. The disease occurs at the mucosal surface, with no invasion by the microbe into deeper tissue, and the disease symptons are primarily due to the action of a sigle molecule, the cholera toxin.
Disease:
Cholera.
Genomes:comparative pathogenomics
V. cholerae O395 chromosome 1, 1108250 bp, NC_009456
V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 chromosome 1, 3288558 bp, NC_004603
V. cholerae O395 chromosome 2, 3024069 bp, NC_009457
V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 chromosome 2, 1877212 bp, NC_004605
V. cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961 chromosome I, 2961149 bp, NC_002505
V. fischeri ES114 chromosome I, 2897536 bp, NC_006840
V. vulnificus CMCP6 chromosome I, 3281866 bp, NC_004459
V. vulnificus YJ016 chromosome I, 3354505 bp, NC_005139
V. cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961 chromosome II, 1072315 bp, NC_002506
V. fischeri ES114 chromosome II, 1330333 bp, NC_006841
V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116 chromosome II, 2204018 bp, NC_009784
V. vulnificus CMCP6 chromosome II, 1844830 bp, NC_004460
V. vulnificus YJ016 chromosome II, 1857073 bp, NC_005140
Publications:
Heidelberg JF, et al., 2000. DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae Nature 406(6795):477-483.
Makino K, et al., 2003. Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V. cholerae Lancet 361(9359):743-749.
Kim YR, et al., 2003. Characterization and pathogenic significance of Vibrio vulnificus antigens preferentially expressed in septicemic patients. Infect Immun 71(10):5461-5471.
Chen CY, et al., 2003. Comparative genome analysis of Vibrio vulnificus, a marine pathogen. Genome Res. 13(12):2577-2587.
Ruby EG, et al., 2005. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri: a symbiotic bacterium with pathogenic congeners. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102(8):3004-3009.
Feng L, et al., 2008. A recalibrated molecular clock and independent origins for the cholera pandemic clones. PLoS One 3(12):e4053.
Figures:


Major virulence factors in Vibrio:
Adherence
ACF
IlpA (V. vulnificus)
MAM7 (V. parahaemolyticus)
MSHA pili
OmpU (V. vulnificus)
TCP
VpadF (V. parahaemolyticus)
Motility
Flagella
Regulation
AI-2
CAI-1
Secretion system
T3SS1 (V. parahaemolyticus)
T3SS2 (V. parahaemolyticus)
T6SS
Toxin
Ace
CT
MARTX
TDH (V. parahaemolyticus)
TRH (V. parahaemolyticus)
VCC
Zot
Pathogenicity islands in Vibrio:
VPI
VPI-2
Location of virulence-associated genes in V. cholerae:



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