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About Vibrio

General information:
Gram-negative, part of the family Vibrionaceae, which is also includes the genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas.
V. cholerae is one of several medically important species, the others being V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus.
Characteristics:
V. cholerae is well recoginzed and extensively studied as the causative agent of the human intestinal disease cholera. The disease occurs at the mucosal surface, with no invasion by the microbe into deeper tissue, and the disease symptons are primarily due to the action of a sigle molecule, the cholera toxin.
Disease:
Cholera.
Selected genomes:comparative pathogenomics
V. cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961 chromosome I, 2961149 bp, NC_002505
V. cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961 chromosome II, 1072315 bp, NC_002506
V. cholerae O395 chromosome 1, 3024069 bp, NC_009457
V. cholerae O395 chromosome 2, 1108250 bp, NC_009456
V. fischeri ES114 chromosome I, 2897536 bp, NC_006840
V. fischeri ES114 chromosome II, 1330333 bp, NC_006841
V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116 chromosome II, 2204018 bp, NC_009784
V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 chromosome 1, 3288558 bp, NC_004603
V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 chromosome 2, 1877212 bp, NC_004605
V. vulnificus CMCP6 chromosome I, 3281866 bp, NC_004459
V. vulnificus CMCP6 chromosome II, 1844830 bp, NC_004460
V. vulnificus YJ016 chromosome I, 3354505 bp, NC_005139
V. vulnificus YJ016 chromosome II, 1857073 bp, NC_005140
Related publications:
Heidelberg JF, et al., 2000. DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae Nature 406(6795):477-483.
Makino K, et al., 2003. Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V. cholerae Lancet 361(9359):743-749.
Kim YR, et al., 2003. Characterization and pathogenic significance of Vibrio vulnificus antigens preferentially expressed in septicemic patients. Infect Immun 71(10):5461-5471.
Chen CY, et al., 2003. Comparative genome analysis of Vibrio vulnificus, a marine pathogen. Genome Res. 13(12):2577-2587.
Ruby EG, et al., 2005. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri: a symbiotic bacterium with pathogenic congeners. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102(8):3004-3009.
Feng L, et al., 2008. A recalibrated molecular clock and independent origins for the cholera pandemic clones. PLoS One 3(12):e4053.
Figures:
Pathogenic schema of Vibiro chelora


Major virulence factors in Vibrio:
Adherence
ChiRP (Chitin-regulated pilus) - V. vulnificus
Flp pili (Fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein pili) - V. vulnificus
GbpA (N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding protein A)
IlpA (Immunogenic lipoprotein A) - V. vulnificus
MAM7 (Multivalent adhesion molecule 7) - V. parahaemolyticus
MSHA pili (Mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pili)
OmpU - V. vulnificus
TCP (Toxin-coregulated pilus)
VpadF (V. parahaemolyticus adhesive factor) - V. parahaemolyticus
Effector delivery system
Eps T2SS (Extracellular protein secretion)
T3SS1 - V. parahaemolyticus
T3SS1 secreted effectors
T3SS2 - V. parahaemolyticus
T3SS2 secreted effectors
VAS T6SS
VAS T6SS secreted effectors
Motility
Flagella
Exotoxin
Ace (Accessory cholera enterotoxin)
ChxA (Cholix toxin)
CT (Cholera toxin)
MARTX (Multifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxin)
TDH (Thermostable direct hemolysin) - V. parahaemolyticus
TLH (Thermolabile hemolysin) - V. parahaemolyticus
TRH (TDH-related hemolysin) - V. parahaemolyticus
VCC (Vibrio cholerae cytolysin)
VvhA (V. vulnificus hemolysin) - V. vulnificus
Zot (Zonula occludens toxin)
Exoenzyme
HAP (Hemagglutinin protease)
NanH/VCNA (Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase)
Biofilm
AI-2 (Autoinducer-2)
Bap1 (Biofilm-Associated Protein 1)
CAI-1 (Cholerae autoinducer-1)
RbmA (Rugosity and Biofilm Modulator A)
RbmC (Rugosity and Biofilm Modulator C)
VPS (Vibrio polysaccharide)
Others
ACF (Accessory colonization factor)

Genomic location of virulence-related genes in Vibrio:


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