About Yersinia

General information:
Gram-negative coccobacillus,classified within the family Enterobacteriaceae and is composed of 11 species, three of which are pathogenic for rodents and humans: Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis and some biotypes of Y. enterocolitica.
Y. pestis appears to have evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis by a process combining lateral gene transfer and gene inactivation, while Y. enterocolitica represents a distinct evolutionary lineage.
Y. enterocolitica strains are classified into six biogroups (1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5) on the basis of phenotypic characteristics. Y. pseudotuberculosis can be classified into 21 different serogroups based on the O antigen, Y. pestis lacks O antigen.
Virulence is essentially conferred by the presence of a conserved 70kb plasmid that is common to all three Yersinia pathogen species and is, therefore, not species specific. The 70 kb plasmid is called low calcium response plasmid (pLCR/pYV), since it confers the requirement for calcium in order to grow at 37 degree. The specific nomenclature of pLCR varies in different Yersinia species. pLCR was designated pCD1 (denoting calcium dependence) in Y. pestis, pYVe (denoting Yersinia virulence) in Y. enterocolitica, and pYV or pIB1 in Y. pseudotuberculosis.
Tropism for lymphoid tissue and a remarkable ability to resist the primary immune response of the host due to the Ysc-Yop type III secretion system.
Mode of entry: zipper mechanism.
Y. pestis is the agent of black death.
Y. pseudotuberculosis is an agent of mesenteric adenitis and septicaemia.
Y. enterocolitica, the most prevalent in humans, causes gastrointestinal syndromes, ranging from acute enteritis to mesenteric lymphadenitis.
Selected genomes:comparative pathogenomics
Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica 8081, 4615899 bp, NC_008800
Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica 105.5R(r), 4552107 bp, NC_015224
Y. pestis Angola, 4504254 bp, NC_010159
Y. pestis Antiqua, 4702289 bp, NC_008150
Y. pestis biovar Microtus str. 91001, 4595065 bp, NC_005810
Y. pestis CO92, 4653728 bp, NC_003143
Y. pestis KIM 10, 4600755 bp, NC_004088
Y. pestis Nepal516, 4534590 bp, NC_008149
Y. pestis Pestoides F, 4517345 bp, NC_009381
Y. pestis Z176003, 4553586 bp, NC_014029
Y. pseudotuberculosis IP 31758, 4723306 bp, NC_009708
Y. pseudotuberculosis IP 32953, 4744671 bp, NC_006155
Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+, 4695619 bp, NC_010634
Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII, 4689441 bp, NC_010465
Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica 8081 pYVe8081, 67721 bp, NC_008791
Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica 105.5R(r) 105.5R(r)p, 69704 bp, NC_015475
Y. pestis Angola new_pCD, 68190 bp, NC_010157
Y. pestis Angola pMT-pPCP, 114570 bp, NC_010158
Y. pestis Antiqua pCD, 70299 bp, NC_008122
Y. pestis Antiqua pMT, 96471 bp, NC_008120
Y. pestis Antiqua pPCP, 10777 bp, NC_008121
Y. pestis biovar Microtus str. 91001 pCD1, 70159 bp, NC_005813
Y. pestis biovar Microtus str. 91001 pMT1, 106642 bp, NC_005815
Y. pestis biovar Microtus str. 91001 pPCP1, 9609 bp, NC_005816
Y. pestis CO92 pCD1, 70305 bp, NC_003131
Y. pestis CO92 pMT1, 96210 bp, NC_003134
Y. pestis CO92 pPCP1, 9612 bp, NC_003132
Y. pestis KIM 10 pMT-1, 100990 bp, NC_004838
Y. pestis Nepal516 pMT, 100918 bp, NC_008118
Y. pestis Nepal516 pPCP, 10778 bp, NC_008119
Y. pestis Pestoides F CD, 71507 bp, NC_009377
Y. pestis Pestoides F MT, 137010 bp, NC_009378
Y. pestis Z176003 pCD1, 68342 bp, NC_014017
Y. pestis Z176003 pMT1, 94251 bp, NC_014022
Y. pestis Z176003 pPCP1, 9609 bp, NC_014027
Y. pseudotuberculosis IP 31758 plasmid_153kb, 153140 bp, NC_009705
Y. pseudotuberculosis IP 31758 plasmid_59kb, 58679 bp, NC_009704
Y. pseudotuberculosis IP 32953 pYV, 68525 bp, NC_006153
Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+ pYPTS01, 69812 bp, NC_010635
Related publications:
Parkhill J, et al., 2001. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nature 413(6855):523-527.
Deng W, et al., 2002. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis KIM. J. Bacteriol. 184(16):4601-4611.
Chain PS, et al., 2004. Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(38):13826-13831.
Song Y, et al., 2004. Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 91001, an isolate avirulent to humans. DNA Res. 11(3):179-197.
Chain PS, et al., 2006. Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strains Antiqua and Nepa1516: evidence of gene reduction in an emerging pathogen. J. Bacteriol. 188(12):4453-4463.
Thomson NR, et al., 2006. The complete genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of the high pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica Strain 8081. PLoS Genet. 2(12):2039-2051.
Eppinger M, et al., 2007. The complete genome sequence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758, the causative agent of Far East scarlet-like fever. PLoS Genet 3(8):e142.
Eppinger M, et al., 2010. Genome sequence of the deep-rooted Yersinia pestis strain Angola reveals new insights into the evolution and pangenome of the plague bacterium. J Bacteriol 192(6):1685-1699.
Shen X, et al., 2010. Complete genome sequences of Yersinia pestis from natural foci in China. J Bacteriol 192(13):3551-3552.
Wang X, et al., 2011. Complete genome sequence of a Yersinia enterocolitica "Old World" (3/O:9) strain and comparison with the "New World" (1B/O:8) strain. J Clin Microbiol 49(4):1251-1259.
Major virulence factors in Yersinia:
Myf/pH6 antigen (Mucoid Yersinia factor)
Type IV pili - Y. pseudotuberculosis
Ail (Attachment-invasion locus)
Invasin B/Ifp (Intimin family protein) - Y. pseudotuberculosis
Invasin C/Ilp (Intimin/InvA-like protein) - Y. pseudotuberculosis
Invasin D - Y. pseudotuberculosis
Effector delivery system
TTSS (Type III secretion system)
TTSS secreted effectors
YadA ( Yersinia adherence protein A)
Ysa TTSS (Yersinia secretion apparatus (Ysa)) - Y. enterocolitica
Ysa TTSS effectors - Y. enterocolitica
Yst1 T2SS (Yst1 type II secretion system) - Y. enterocolitica
Flagella - Y. enterocolitica
CNFy (Cytotoxic necrotizing factor) - Y. pseudotuberculosis
YaxAB - Y. enterocolitica
Ymt (Yersinia murine toxin)
YplA - Y. enterocolitica
YPM (Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen) - Y. pseudotuberculosis
Yst - Y. enterocolitica
Pla (Plasminogen activator)
Immune modulation
F1 antigen (Fraction 1 capsular antigen)
O-antigen - Y. enterocolitica
Nutritional/Metabolic factor

Genomic location of virulence-related genes in Yersinia:

zipper mechanism
Entails the zippering of the host cell membrane around the bacterium as it enters. This mode of entry into non-professional phagocytes is empolyed by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial ligand interacts with a surface molecule on the host cell. The receptor is generally a protein involved in cell adhesion and/or activation of the cytoskeleton machinery. The ligand-receptor interaction induces local rearrangements in actin cytoskeleton and other signals that culminate in the tight envelopment of the bacterial body by the plasma membrane.

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