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Staphylococcus

General information:
Gram-positive spherical bacteria belong to Micrococcaceae family.
Classified into two major groups: aureus and non-aureus. S. aureus is one of the major causes of community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection. Of the non-aureus species, S. epidermis is the most clinically significant.
Characteristics:
Primarily an extracellular pathogen.
Adherence is mediated by surface protein adhesins called MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules).
One feature contributes to the virulence of S. epidermidis is the ability to adhere to plasitic and form a biofilm.
Disease:
S. aureus: a wide variety of diseases, ranging form superficial abscesses and wound infections to deep and systemic infections such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis and septicaemia.
Toxic-shock syndrome, staphylococcal scarlet fever, scalded skin syndrome.
S. epidermidis: catheter-associated infections, biofilms on plastic implants, endocarditis.
Genomes:comparative pathogenomics
S. aureus RF122, 2742531 bp, NC_007622
S. aureus subsp. aureus COL, 2809422 bp, NC_002951
S. aureus subsp. aureus JH1, 2906507 bp, NC_009632
S. aureus subsp. aureus JH9, 2906700 bp, NC_009487
S. aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252, 2902619 bp, NC_002952
S. aureus subsp. aureus MSSA476, 2799802 bp, NC_002953
S. aureus subsp. aureus Mu3, 2880168 bp, NC_009782
S. aureus subsp. aureus Mu50, 2878529 bp, NC_002758
S. aureus subsp. aureus MW2, 2820462 bp, NC_003923
S. aureus subsp. aureus N315, 2814816 bp, NC_002745
S. aureus subsp. aureus NCTC 8325, 2821361 bp, NC_007795
S. aureus subsp. aureus str. Newman, 2878897 bp, NC_009641
S. aureus subsp. aureus USA300_FPR3757, 2872769 bp, NC_007793
S. aureus subsp. aureus USA300_TCH1516, 2872915 bp, NC_010079
S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, 2499279 bp, NC_004461
S. epidermidis RP62A, 2616530 bp, NC_002976
S. haemolyticus JCSC1435, 2685015 bp, NC_007168
S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305, 2516575 bp, NC_007350
Plasmids:
S. aureus str. TY4 pETB, 38211 bp, NC_003265
Publications:
Kuroda M, et al., 2001. Whole genome sequencing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lancet 357(9264):1225-1240.
Baba T, et al., 2002. Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA. Lancet 359(9320):1819-1827.
Zhang YQ, et al., 2003. Genome-based analysis of virulence genes in a non-biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis strain (ATCC 12228) Mol. Microbiol. 49(6):1577-1593.
Holden MT, et al., 2004. Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101(26):9786-9791.
Gill SR, et al., 2005. Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J Bacteriol 187(7):2426-2438.
Kuroda M, et al., 2005. Whole genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus reveals the pathogenesis of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(37):13272-13277.
Takeuchi F, et al., 2005. Whole-genome sequencing of staphylococcus haemolyticus uncovers the extreme plasticity of its genome and the evolution of human-colonizing staphylococcal species. J Bacteriol 187(21):7292-7308.
Diep BA, et al., 2006. Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 367(9512):731-739.
Baba T, et al., 2008. Genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman and comparative analysis of staphylococcal genomes: polymorphism and evolution of two major pathogenicity islands. J Bacteriol 190(1):300-310.
Neoh HM, et al., 2008. Mutated response regulator graR is responsible for phenotypic conversion of Staphylococcus aureus from heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate resistance to vancomycin-intermediate resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 52(1):45-53.
Herron-Olson L, et al., 2007. Molecular Correlates of Host Specialization in Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS ONE 2(10):e1120.
Highlander SK, et al., 2007. Subtle genetic changes enhance virulence of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Microbiol 7:99.
Major virulence factors in Staphylococcus:
Adherence
CNA
Clumping factor
Eap/Map
EbpS
FnBPs
Intercellular adhesion proteins
SDr
Antiphagocytosis
Capsule
Exoenzyme
Aureolysin
Hyaluronate lyase
Lipase
Staphopain
Staphylocoagulase
V8 protease
vWbp
Immune evasion
AdsA
CHIPS
SCIN
Sbi
SpA
Iron uptake
Isd
Plasminogen activator
Staphylokinase
Secretion system
Type VII secretion system
Toxin
α-hemolysin
β-hemolysin
δ-hemolysin
γ-hemolysin
Exfoliative toxin
PVL
SE
TSST-1
Location of virulence-associated genes in S. aureus:



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