General information: Gram-negative enteric bacilli, closely related to Escherichia
Four species: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei Characteristics: Well-studied example of a facultative intracellular pathogen
Invasion site: colonic and rectal epithelium
The initial entry route is M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) that overlies the mucosa-associated lymph nodes
Entry into polarized epithelial cells occurs most efficiently from the basolateral side (Salmonella and EPEC/Shiga toxin producing E. coli are able to interact with host cells from the apical side)
Mode of entry: trigger mechanism Shigella, Listeria and Rickettsia are the only three bacterial genera found so far that are able to escape from the phagocytic vacuole and to use cytoplasmic cytoskeletal components to achieve movement and lead to cell-to-cell spread Disease: Shigellosis Genomes (comparative pathogenomics): S. boydii CDC 3083-94, 4615997 bp, NC_010658 S. boydii Sb227, 4519823 bp, NC_007613 S. dysenteriae Sd197, 4369232 bp, NC_007606 S. flexneri 2a str. 2457T, 4599354 bp, NC_004741 S. flexneri 2a str. 301, 4607203 bp, NC_004337 S. flexneri 5 str. 8401, 4574284 bp, NC_008258 S. sonnei Ss046, 4825265 bp, NC_007384 Plasmids: S. boydii CDC 3083-94 pBS512_211, 210919 bp, NC_010660 S. boydii Sb227 pSB4_227, 126697 bp, NC_007608 S. dysenteriae Sd197 pSD1_197, 182726 bp, NC_007607 S. flexneri 2a str. 301 pCP301, 221618 bp, NC_004851 S. flexneri 5a str. M90T pWR501, 221851 bp, NC_002698 S. sonnei Ss046 pSS_046, 214396 bp, NC_007385 Publications: Yang F, et al., 2005. Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery. Nucleic Acids Res. 33(19):6445-6458.
Wei J, et al., 2003. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomics of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T. Infect. Immun. 71(5):2775-2786.
Jin Q, et al., 2002. Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and O157. Nucleic Acids Res. 30(20):4432-4441.
Nie H, et al., 2006. Complete genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 5b and comparison with Shigella flexneri 2a. BMC Genomics 7:173.
Venkatesan MM, et al., 2001. Complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneriInfect. Immun. 69(5):3271-3285.
Jiang Y, et al., 2005. The complete sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid pSS of Shigella sonnei. Plasmid 54(2):149-159. Figures: Schema of Shigella invasion strategies (Reproduced from: Sansonetti PJ, 2001. Rupture, invasion and inflammatory destruction of the intestinal barrier by Shigella, making sense of prokaryote-eukaryote cross-talks. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25(1):3-14.)