About Bacillus

General information:
Rod-shaped, endospore-forming aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram positive bacteria. The only other known spore-producing bacterium is Clostridium.
Although most species of Bacillus are harmless saprophytes, two species are considered medically significant: B.anthracis and B. cereus.
Key virulence genes of B. anthracis are found on plasmids pXO1 and pXO2.
B. anthracis is the etiological agent of anthrax.
B. cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes.
Selected genomes:comparative pathogenomics
B. anthracis str. Ames, 5227293 bp, NC_003997
B. anthracis str. Ames Ancestor, 5227419 bp, NC_007530
B. anthracis str. Sterne, 5228663 bp, NC_005945
B. cereus AH187, 5269030 bp, NC_011658
B. cereus ATCC 10987, 5224283 bp, NC_003909
B. cereus ATCC 14579, 5411809 bp, NC_004722
B. cereus B4264, 5419036 bp, NC_011725
B. cereus biovar anthracis str. CI, 5196054 bp, NC_014335
B. cereus E33L, 5300915 bp, NC_006274
B. cereus G9241, 5267792 bp, NZ_CP009590
B. cereus Q1, 5214195 bp, NC_011969
B. clausii KSM-K16, 4303871 bp, NC_006582
B. halodurans C-125, 4202352 bp, NC_002570
B. licheniformis ATCC 14580, 4222597 bp, NC_006270
B. licheniformis DSM 13 (ATCC 14580), 4222645 bp, NC_006322
B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, 4215606 bp, NC_000964
B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian str. 97-27, 5237682 bp, NC_005957
B. thuringiensis str. Al Hakam, 5257091 bp, NC_008600
B. weihenstephanensis KBAB4, 5262775 bp, NC_010184
B. anthracis pXO2, 96231 bp, AF188935
B. anthracis str. Ames Ancestor pXO1, 181677 bp, NC_007322
B. anthracis str. Ames Ancestor pXO2, 94830 bp, NC_007323
B. anthracis str. Sterne pXO1, 181654 bp, AF065404
B. cereus AH187 pAH187_270, 270082 bp, NC_011655
B. cereus biovar anthracis str. CI pCI-XO1, 181907 bp, NC_014331
B. cereus biovar anthracis str. CI pCI-XO2, 94469 bp, NC_014332
B. cereus G9241 pBC210, 209255 bp, NZ_CP009591
B. cereus G9241 pBCX01, 190860 bp, NZ_CP009592
B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis pBtoxis, 127923 bp, AL731825
Related publications:
Kunst F, et al., 1997. The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis Nature 390(6657):249-256.
Okinaka RT, et al., 1999. Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. J Bacteriol 181(20):6509-6515.
Takami H, et al., 2000. Complete genome sequence of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans and genomic sequence comparison with Bacillus subtilis Nucleic Acids Res. 28(21):4317-4331.
Read TD, et al., 2003. The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely-related bacteria. Nature 423(6935):81-86.
Ivanova N, et al., 2003. Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis Nature 423(6935):87-91.
Rasko DA, et al., 2004. The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1. Nucl. Acids Res. 32(3):977-988.
Veith B, et al., 2004. The complete genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, an organism with great industrial potential. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 7(4):204-211.
Rey MW, et al., 2004. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species. Genome Biol. 5(10):R77.
Han CS, et al., 2006. Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol 188(9):3382-3390.
Challacombe JF, et al., 2007. The complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam. J Bacteriol 189(9):3680-3681.
Ravel J, et al., 2009. The complete genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames "Ancestor". J Bacteriol 191(1):445-446.
Johnson SL, et al., 2015. Complete genome sequences for 35 biothreat assay-relevant bacillus species. Genome Announc 3(2):pii: e00151-15.
Major virulence factors in Bacillus:
Effector delivery system
T7SS (Type VII secretion system)
ALO (Anthrolysin O)
Anthrax toxin
Cereulide - B. cereus
Certhrax - B. cereus
CytK (Cytotoxin K, Haemolysin IV) - B. cereus
HBL (Haemolysin BL) - B. cereus
Nhe (Nonhemolytic enterotoxin) - B. cereus
InhA (Immune inhibitor A)
Immune modulation
Nutritional/Metabolic factor
Bacillibactin - B. cereus
Hal (Heme-acquisition leucine-rich repeat protein)
IlsA (Iron-regulated leucine rich surface protein type A) - B. cereus
AtxA (Anthrax toxin activator)
BslA (B. anthracis S-layer protein A)

Genomic location of virulence-related genes in Bacillus:

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