Homepage Search in the database Current status Feedback Link to resources Contact us

INTERFACE
Bacteria
Acinetobacter
Aeromonas
Anaplasma
Bacillus
Bartonella
Bordetella
Brucella
Burkholderia
Campylobacter
Chlamydia
Clostridium
Corynebacterium
Coxiella
Enterococcus
Escherichia
Francisella
Haemophilus
Helicobacter
Klebsiella
Legionella
Listeria
Mycobacterium
Mycoplasma
Neisseria
Pseudomonas
Rickettsia
Salmonella
Shigella
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
Vibrio
Yersinia
Download

 
Salmonella


General information:
Gram-negative bacilli, comprise two species: S. enterica, which is subdivided into over 2,000 serovars, and S. bongori
Based on genetic similarity and host range, the species has been divided into six subspecies: enterica (Group 1), salamae (Group 2), arizonae (Group 3a), diarizonae (Group 3b), houtenae (Group 4), and indica (Group 6). S. bongori was initially categorized as subspecies 5
enterica includes many of the serotypes pathogenic for humans, including S. typhi and S. typhimurium.
Characteristics:
Traverse the intestinal mucosa through M cells, colonize Peyer's pathes, spread via the lymphatics and bloodstream to the liver and speen
Mode of entry: trigger mechanism and zipper mechanism
In contrast to Shigella, Listeria and Richettsiae, which escape from their nascent membrane-bound compartment and replicate in the cytoplasm, Salmonella manages to survive within its membrane-bound vacuole
Disease:
S. typhimurium: a leading cause of human gastroenteritis, and is used as a mouse model of human typhoid fever
S. typhi: a human-specific pathogen causing the systemic febrile illness typhoid fever
Genomes (comparative pathogenomics):
S. enterica subsp. arizonae serovar 62:z4,z23:-- str. RSK2980, 4600800 bp, NC_010067
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona str. SL483, 4798660 bp, NC_011149
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67, 4755700 bp, NC_006905
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin str. CT_02021853, 4842908 bp, NC_011205
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis str. P125109, 4685848 bp, NC_011294
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum str. 287/91, 4658697 bp, NC_011274
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg str. SL476, 4888768 bp, NC_011083
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport str. SL254, 4827641 bp, NC_011080
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi A str. AKU_12601, 4581797 bp, NC_011147
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi A str. ATCC 9150, 4585229 bp, NC_006511
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B str. SPB7, 4858887 bp, NC_010102
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi C strain RKS4594, 4833080 bp, NC_012125
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str. CVM19633, 4709075 bp, NC_011094
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi str. CT18, 4809037 bp, NC_003198
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi str. Ty2, 4791961 bp, NC_004631
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2, 4857432 bp, NC_003197
Plasmids:
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67 pSCV50, 49558 bp, NC_006855
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin str. CT_02021853 pCT02021853_74, 74551 bp, NC_011204
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi C strain RKS4594 pSPCV, 55414 bp, NC_012124
S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2 pSLT, 93939 bp, NC_003277
Publications:
Chiu CH, et al., 2005. The genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a highly invasive and resistant zoonotic pathogen. Nucleic Acids Res 33(5):1690-1698.
Thomson NR, et al., 2008. Comparative genome analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Gallinarum 287/91 provides insights into evolutionary and host adaptation pathways. Genome Res 18(10):1624-1637.
Welch TJ, et al., 2007. Multiple antimicrobial resistance in plague: an emerging public health risk. PLoS One 2(3):e309.
Holt KE, et al., 2009. Pseudogene accumulation in the evolutionary histories of Salmonella enterica serovars Paratyphi A and Typhi. BMC Genomics 10:36.
McClelland M, et al., 2004. Comparison of genome degradation in Paratyphi A and Typhi, human-restricted serovars of Salmonella enterica that cause typhoid. Nat Genet 36(12):1268-1274.
Liu WQ, et al., 2009. Salmonella paratyphi C: genetic divergence from Salmonella choleraesuis and pathogenic convergence with Salmonella typhi. PLoS One 4(2):e4510.
Parkhill J, et al., 2001. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18. Nature 413(6858):848-852.
Deng W, et al., 2003. Comparative genomics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains Ty2 and CT18. J. Bacteriol. 185(7):2330-2337.
McClelland M, et al., 2001. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Nature 413(6858):852-856.
Major virulence factors in Salmonella:
Adherence
Agf
Lpf
MisL
Pef
RatB
ShdA
SinH
Type 1 fimbriae
Antivirulence
GrvA
Immune evasion
Vi antigen (S. enterica (serovar typhi))
Magnesium uptake
MgtBC
Regulation
Fur
PhoPQ
RpoS
Resistance to antimicrobial peptides
Mig-14
Secretion system
TTSS(SPI-1 encode)
TTSS(SPI-2 encode)
Serum resistance
Rck
Stress protein
SodCI
Toxin
CdtB (S. enterica (serovar typhi))
Spv
Unclassified
Mig-5
Pathogenicity islands in Salmonella:
SPI-1
SPI-2
SPI-3
SPI-4
SPI-5




Terms
M cells
Specialized cells devoid of brush border which belong to the follicle-associated epithelium(FEA) that covers the lymph nodes associated with the mucosa. It spares the microbe the need to dissolve the mucus, resist intestinal peristaltism, invade epithelial cells through their apical brush border, or penetrate between cells by opening their tight junctions;The major Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogens, Shigella, Salmonella, and Yersinia, primarily use the FAE as their entry route.
trigger mechanism
Contact between bacteria and cells results in a dramatic response at the cell surface and bacterial uptake via membrane ruffles, a process resembling macropinocytosis. This mode of entry into non-professional phagocytes is empolyed by Salmonella and Shigella

Back to Top
Back to Top