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Burkholderia

General information:
Contains over 40 species, Gram-negative.
The most pathogenic members are B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and, in certain clinical conditions such as cystic fibrosis, Burkholderia cepacia complex.
Characteristics:
B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are facultative intracellular pathogens that can invade and replicate inside epithelial and phagocytic cells.
Following uptake by a eukaryotic cell, B. pseudomallei is able to escape the endocytic compartment and enter the cytoplasm by using one of its T3SS. Once in the cytoplasm, the bacterium polymerizes host actin using the surface protein BimA to move within host cells, avoiding exposure to the extracellular space. B. pseudomallei can induce fusion of neighboring host cell membranes, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells, in a process that depends on one of its T6SS.
Disease:
B. pseudomallei is a potential bioterror agent and the causative agent of melioidosis.
B. mallei causes glanders in horses and other solipeds and is highly virulent in humans.
B. cenocepacia is an important cause of opportunistic infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Several Burkholderia species are pathogenic to plants and cause symptoms such as wilt, blight, rot or canker.
Genomes:comparative pathogenomics
B. cenocepacia AU 1054 chromosome I, 3294563 bp, NC_008060
B. cenocepacia HI2424 chromosome I, 3483902 bp, NC_008542
B. cenocepacia J2315 chromosome I, 3870082 bp, NC_011000
B. cenocepacia MC0-3 chromosome I, 3532883 bp, NC_010508
B. mallei ATCC 23344 chromosome I, 3510148 bp, NC_006348
B. mallei NCTC 10229 chromosome I, 3458208 bp, NC_008836
B. mallei NCTC 10247 chromosome I, 3495687 bp, NC_009080
B. mallei SAVP1 chromosome I, 3497479 bp, NC_008785
B. pseudomallei 1106a chromosome I, 3988455 bp, NC_009076
B. pseudomallei 1710b chromosome I, 4126292 bp, NC_007434
B. pseudomallei 668 chromosome I, 3912947 bp, NC_009074
B. pseudomallei K96243 chromosome I, 4074542 bp, NC_006350
B. thailandensis E264 chromosome I, 3809201 bp, NC_007651
B. cenocepacia AU 1054 chromosome II, 2788459 bp, NC_008061
B. cenocepacia HI2424 chromosome II, 2998664 bp, NC_008543
B. cenocepacia J2315 chromosome II, 3217062 bp, NC_011001
B. cenocepacia MC0-3 chromosome II, 3213911 bp, NC_010515
B. mallei ATCC 23344 chromosome II, 2325379 bp, NC_006349
B. mallei NCTC 10229 chromosome II, 2284095 bp, NC_008835
B. mallei NCTC 10247 chromosome II, 2352693 bp, NC_009079
B. mallei SAVP1 chromosome II, 1734922 bp, NC_008784
B. pseudomallei 1106a chromosome II, 3100794 bp, NC_009078
B. pseudomallei 1710b chromosome II, 3181762 bp, NC_007435
B. pseudomallei 668 chromosome II, 3127456 bp, NC_009075
B. pseudomallei K96243 chromosome II, 3173005 bp, NC_006351
B. thailandensis E264 chromosome II, 2914771 bp, NC_007650
B. cenocepacia J2315 chromosome III, 875977 bp, NC_011002
Publications:
Nierman WC, et al., 2004. Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(39):14246-14251.
Holden MT, et al., 2004. Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(39):14240-14245.
Holden MT, et al., 2009. The genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, an epidemic pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. J Bacteriol 191(1):261-277.
Figures:
The intracellular lifestyle of Burkholderia pseudomallei. (From: Wiersinga WJ, et al., 2006. Melioidosis: insights into the pathogenicity of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Nat Rev Microbiol 4(4):272-282.)


Major virulence factors in Burkholderia:
Actin-based intracellular motility
BimA
Adherence
BoaA
BoaB
Type IV pili
Antiphagocytosis
Capsule I
Invasion
Flagella
Secretion system
Bsa T3SS
T6SS-1
Signaling
CdpA
Quorum-sensing
Location of virulence-associated genes in B. pseudomallei:



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