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Identified virulence factors of Staphylococcus: Plasminogen activator


Staphylokinase  

Related genes: sak;
Keywords: Plasminogen activator; Tissue invasion;
Characteristics:
Bacteria plasminogen activator: staphylokinase, strepokinase, act as cofactor molecules that contribute to exosite formation and enhance the substrate presentation to the enzyme.
The gene for Staphylokinase is carried by certain prophages.
Structure features:
PDB code: 1C76.
Functions:
Contributes to spread of the bacteria.
Activates plasminogen (not in a controlled way) to dissolve clots, also destroys the ECM and fibrin fibers that hold cells together, thus allowing the bacteria escape from abscesses.
Mechanism:
Staphylokinase is not an enzyme itself but form 1:1 stoichiometric complexes with plasmin-(ogen) that coverts other plasminogen molecules to plasmin, a potent enzyme that degrades proteins of the extracellular matrix.
References:
Sakharov DV, et al., 1996. Interactions between staphylokinase, plasmin(ogen), and fibrin. Staphylokinase discriminates between free plasminogen and plasminogen bound to partially degraded fibrin. J. Biol. Chem. 271(44):27912-27918.
Collen D, 1998. Staphylokinase: a potent, uniquely fibrin-selective thrombolytic agent. Nat. Med. 4(3):279-284.
Parry MA, et al., 2000. Molecular mechanisms of plasminogen activation: bacterial cofactors provide clues. Trends Biochem. Sci. 25(2):53-59.








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