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Identified virulence factors of Staphylococcus: Immune evasion


AdsA (adenosine synthase A)  

Related genes: adsA;
Keywords: Immune evasion;
Characteristics:
Harbors two 5'-nucleotidase motifs and a C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signal.
Functions:
Evasion from innate immunity.
Mechanism:
Synthesizes the immune signaling molecule adenosine via hyrolysis of AMP, ADP or ATP, thereby dampening innate and adaptive immune responses during infection.
References:
Thammavongsa V, et al., 2009. Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes adenosine to escape host immune responses. J Exp Med. 206(11):2417-2427.
Thammavongsa V, et al., 2011. Enzymatic properties of Staphylococcus aureus adenosine synthase (AdsA). BMC Biochem. 12:56.


CHIPS (chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus)  

Related genes: chp;
Keywords: Immune evasion;
Characteristics:
Located on the β-hemolysin (hlb)-converting bacteriophages.
Functions:
Evasion from innate immunity.
Mechanism:
A 121-residue excreted protein that binds the N-terminus of the C5a receptor (residues 1~35) with nanomolar affinity and thereby potently inhibits C5a-mediated responses in human leukocytes.
References:
De Haas CJ, et al., 2004. Chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial antiinflammatory agent. J Exp Med. 199(5):687-695.
Rooijakkers SH, et al., 2006. Early expression of SCIN and CHIPS drives instant immune evasion by Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Microbiol. 8(8):1282-1293.


Sbi (staphylococcal binder of immunoglobulin)  

Related genes: sbi;
Keywords: Immune evasion;
Characteristics:
A secreted protein that is also associated with the bacterial envelope, lacks a C-terminal LPXTG sorting signal.
Structure features:
Contains two IgBD-like modules that share amino acid sequence homology to the IgBD of SpA followed by two domains responsible for binding of complement factor C3d and factor H.
Functions:
Manipulates the molecular link between innate and adaptive immune responses in favor of staphylococcal disease.
Mechanism:
Forms a tripartite complex with complement factor C3d and factor H, a process that leads to the consumption of C3 to inhibit opsonophagocytic clearance of the pathogen.
References:
Haupt K, et al., 2008. The Staphylococcus aureus protein Sbi acts as a complement inhibitor and forms a tripartite complex with host complement factor H and C3b. PLoS Pathog. 4(1):e1000250.
Smith EJ, et al., 2011. The Sbi protein is a multifunctional immune evasion factor of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 79(9):3801-3809.


SCIN (staphylococcal complement inhibitor)  

Related genes: scn;
Keywords: Immune evasion;
Characteristics:
Located on the β-hemolysin (hlb)-converting bacteriophages.
Functions:
Evasion from innate immunity.
Mechanism:
SCIN and its homologues SCIN-B and SCIN-C are highly effective C3 convertase inhibitors that block conversion of C3 and subsequent phagocytosis and C5a formation.
References:
Rooijakkers SH, et al., 2005. Immune evasion by a staphylococcal complement inhibitor that acts on C3 convertases. Nat. Immunol. 6(9):920-927.
Rooijakkers SH, et al., 2009. Structural and functional implications of the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase stabilized by a staphylococcal inhibitor. Nat. Immunol. 10(7):721-727.


SpA (Protein A)  

Related genes: spa;
Keywords: Immune evasion; Adherence;
Characteristics:
Belongs to MSCRAMMs family.
Structure features:
Anchored to the cell wall by LPXTG motif.
N-terminal signal sequence is followed by tandem repeats of five homologous IgG binding domain. Each is composed of an approximately 60 amino acid residue unit that forms three α-helices.
PDB code: 1BDD, 1EDI, 2SPZ.
Figures:
Structural organization of Protein A


Functions:
Bind to the Fc domain of IgG and inhibit opsonophagocytosis.
Can mediate attachment of S.aureus to von Willebrand factor, a protein present at sites of damage to the endothelium, and might therefore play a role as an adhesin during the initiation of intravascular infection.
References:
Graille M, et al., 2000. Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 97(10):5399-5404.
Hartleib J, et al., 2000. Protein A is the von Willebrand factor binding protein on Staphylococcus aureus. Blood 96(6):2149-2156.
Palmqvist N, et al., 2002. Protein A is a virulence factor in Staphylococcus aureus arthritis and septic death. Microb. Pathog. 33(5):239-249.








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