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Identified virulence factors of Helicobacter: Secretion system


Type IV secretion system  

Related genes: cag1; cag2; cag3; cagD; cagF; cagG; cagH; cagI; cagM; cagN; cagP; cagQ; cagS; cagU; cagZ; virB1; virB10/cagY; virB11; virB2/cagC; virB4/cagE; virB5/cagL; virB6/cagW; virB7/cagT; virB8/cagV; virB9/cagX; virD4;
Keywords: Secretion system; type IV secretion system; Proinflammatory effect;
Structure features:
A pilus-like structure crossing the inner and outer membrane of the bacterium and like a needle inserts into the membrane of host cell.
Functions:
Injects CagA, and possibly other bacterial proteins.
Mechanism:
H. pylori CagL protein is a specialized adhesin that is targeted to the pilus surface, where it binds to and activates integrin α5β1 receptor on gastric epithelial cells through an arginine-glycine-aspartate motif. This interaction triggers CagA delivery into target cells as well as activation of focal adhesion kinase and Src.
References:
Odenbreit S, et al., 2000. Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion. Science 287(5457):1497-1500.
Fischer W, et al., 2001. Systematic mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island: essential genes for CagA translocation in host cells and induction of interleukin-8. Mol. Microbiol. 42(5):1337-1348.
Tanaka J, et al., 2003. Structural definition on the surface of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion apparatus. Cell Microbiol. 5(6):395-404.
Cascales E, Christie PJ, 2003. The versatile bacterial type IV secretion systems. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 1(2):137-149.
Kwok T, et al., 2007. Helicobacter exploits integrin for type IV secretion and kinase activation. Nature 449(7164):862-866.






Terms
type IV secretion system
A bacterial organelle that is ancestrally related to a conjugation machine that translocates DNA or protein substrates across the cell envelope, often for purposes associated with pathogenesis.







Proinflammatory effect Back to Top Toxin
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