Identified virulence factors of Helicobacter: Endotoxin
Related genes: gluE;
Keywords: Endotoxin; Low toxicity; Adherence; Structure features: Under-phosphorylation and under-acylation of lipid A compared with enterobacterial lipid A.
The average length of the fatty acid chains in H. pylori lipid A is longer (16 to 18 carbons) than in E. coli (12 to 14 carbons).
Functions: H. pylori LPS have much lower immunobiological activities than enterobacterial LPS, thus may prolong H. pylori infection for longer.
Mediates a lectin-like interaction with laminin, the binding may disrupt epithelial cell-basement membrane interactions contributing to the disruption of gastric mucosal integrity and the development of gastric leakiness associated with the bacterium.
References: Valkonen KH, et al., 1994. Interaction of lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori with basement membrane protein laminin. Infect Immun 62(9):3640-3648.