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Identified Virulence Factors of Francisella : Intracellular survival


Acid phosphatase  

Related genes: acpA; acpB; acpC; hapA;
Keywords: Intracellular survival;
Functions:
Involved in phagosomal escape and ROS suppression
Mechanism:
Acid phosphatases affect the oxidative burst by mediating dephosphorylation of NADPH oxidase components
References:
Mohapatra NP, et al., 2007. AcpA is a Francisella acid phosphatase that affects intramacrophage survival and virulence. Infect Immun 75(1):390-6.
Mohapatra NP, et al., 2008. Combined deletion of four Francisella novicida acid phosphatases attenuates virulence and macrophage vacuolar escape. Infect Immun 76(8):3690-9.
McRae S, et al., 2010. Inhibition of AcpA phosphatase activity with ascorbate attenuates Francisella tularensis intramacrophage survival. J Biol Chem 285(8):5171-7.
Mohapatra NP, et al., 2010. Francisella acid phosphatases inactivate the NADPH oxidase in human phagocytes. J Immunol 184(9):5141-50.
Mohapatra NP, et al., 2013. Type A Francisella tularensis acid phosphatases contribute to pathogenesis. PLoS One 8(2):e56834.


DipA (deficient in intracellular replication A)  

Related genes: dipA;
Keywords: Intracellular survival;
Structure features:
A 353 amino acid protein with a Sec-dependent signal peptide, four Sel1-like repeats (SLR), and a C terminal coiled-coil (CC) domain
Functions:
A membrane-associated protein localized on the bacterial surface during macrophage infection, required for intramacrophage proliferation and survival
References:
Chong A, et al., 2012. Cytosolic clearance of replication-deficient mutants reveals Francisella tularensis interactions with the autophagic pathway. Autophagy 8(9):1342-56.
Chong A, et al., 2013. Structure-Function Analysis of DipA, a Francisella tularensis Virulence Factor Required for Intracellular Replication. PLoS One 8(6):e67965.


OmpA  

Related genes: ompA;
Keywords: Intracellular survival;
Figures:
Model for OmpA function. (From: Robertson GT, et al., 2014. FTT0831c/FTL_0325 contributes to Francisella tularensis cell division, maintenance of cell shape, and structural integrity. Infect Immun 82(7):2935-48.)

Functions:
A bacterial lipoprotein linking the OM to the cell wall so as to maintain the structural integrity and prevent altered surface exposure or release of PAMPs
References:
Robertson GT, et al., 2014. FTT0831c/FTL_0325 contributes to Francisella tularensis cell division, maintenance of cell shape, and structural integrity. Infect Immun 82(7):2935-48.


RipA (required for intracellular proliferation, factor A)  

Related genes: ripA;
Keywords: Intracellular survival;
Functions:
A small cytoplasmic membrane protein involved in bacterial intracellular replication and suppression of the proinflammator immune response
References:
Fuller JR, et al., 2008. RipA, a cytoplasmic membrane protein conserved among Francisella species, is required for intracellular survival. Infect Immun 76(11):4934-43.
Fuller JR, et al., 2009. Environmental and intracellular regulation of Francisella tularensis ripA. BMC Microbiol 9:216.
Huang MT, et al., 2010. Deletion of ripA alleviates suppression of the inflammasome and MAPK by Francisella tularensis. J Immunol 185(9):5476-85.
Miller CN, et al., 2014. Extragenic suppressor mutations in ripA disrupt stability and function of LpxA. BMC Microbiol 14:336.








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