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Identified virulence factors of Campylobacter: Toxin


CDT (Cytolethal distending toxin)  

Related genes: cdtA; cdtB; cdtC;
Keywords: Toxin; Intracellular toxin; DNaseI; ABC subunit;
Structure features:
The subunits CdtA and CdtC associate with the nuclease CdtB to form a ternary complex that translocates CdtB into the host cell, where it acts as a genotoxin by creating DNA lesions.
Figures:
Uptake and activity of CDT (From: Young KT, et al., 2007. Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5(9):665-679.).


Functions:
May act directly on enterocytes to induce host cell cycle arrest, distension, and proinflammatory cytokine induction.
Alternatively, or in addition, CDT may act on immune cells, such as intraepithelial lymphocytes, to cause cell cycle arrest.
Mechanism:
DNase involving chromatin disruption, which leads to G2/M-phase growth arrest of the target cell and ultimately cell death.
References:
Lara-Tejero M, Galan JE, 2000. A bacterial toxin that controls cell cycle progression as a deoxyribonuclease I-like protein. Science 290(5490):354-357.
Lara-Tejero M, Galan JE, 2001. CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC form a tripartite complex that is required for cytolethal distending toxin activity. Infect. Immun. 69(7):4358-4365.
Lara-Tejero M, Galan JE, 2002. Cytolethal distending toxin: limited damage as a strategy to modulate cellular functions. Trends Microbiol. 10(3):147-152.
Nesic D, et al., 2004. Assembly and function of a bacterial genotoxin. Nature 429(6990):429-433.








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