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Identified virulence factors of Campylobacter: Invasion


CiaB (Campylobacter invasion antigen B)  

Related genes: ciaB;
Keywords: Invasion;
Characteristics:
73-kDa protein secreted by the flagellin export apparatus.
CiaB lacks an identifiable signal sequence, and an environmental stimulus is required to induce Cia protein secretion, but there is no evidence of a type III secretion system.
Functions:
Required for maximal invasion of intestinal epithelial cells.
Mechanism:
Campylobacter is one of only a handful of bacteria that appear to subvert host microtubule structures to gain entry to a move within host cells. Campylobacter secreted proteins may be involved in recruiting host cell structures, including microtubules, microtubule motors (eg. dynein), and microfilaments, as well as inducing host cell protein tyrosine phosphorylation or activation of trimeric G proteins to effect bacterial entry to the cell and possible subsequent intracytoplasmic motility.
References:
Young GM, et al., 1999. A new pathway for the secretion of virulence factors by bacteria: the flagellar export apparatus functions as protein-secretion system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96(11):6456-6461.
Konkel ME, et al., 1999. Bacterial secreted proteins are required for the internaliztion of Campylobacter jejuni into cultured mammalian cells. Mol. Microbiol. 32(4):691-701.
Rivera-Amill V, Konkel ME, 1999. Secretion of Campylobacter jejuni Cia proteins is contact dependent. Adv Exp Med Biol. 473:225-229.
Rivera-Amill V, et al., 2001. Secretion of the virulence-associated Campylobacter invasion antigens from Campylobacter jejuni requires a stimulatory signal. J. Infect. Dis. 183(11):1607-1616.
Konkel ME, et al., 2004. Secretion of virulence proteins from Campylobacter jejuni is dependent on a functional flagellar export apparatus. J Bacteriol. 186(11):3296-3303.


CiaC (Campylobacter invasion antigen C)  

Related genes: ciaC;
Keywords: Invasion;
Characteristics:
Exported via the flagellar T3SS.
Functions:
Required for maximal invasion of host cells.
References:
Christensen JE, et al., 2009. Identification of a Campylobacter jejuni-secreted protein required for maximal invasion of host cells. Mol. Microbiol. 73(4):650-662.
Neal-McKinney JM, et al., 2012. The Campylobacter jejuni CiaC virulence protein is secreted from the flagellum and delivered to the cytosol of host cells. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:31.








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