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Identified virulence factors of Aeromonas: Secretion system


Exe T2SS  

Related genes: exeA; exeB; exeC; exeD; exeE; exeF; exeG; exeH; exeI; exeJ; exeK; exeL; exeM; exeN; tapD;
Keywords: Secretion system; Type II secretion system;
Functions:
Essential for secretion of many virulence factors, such as aerolysin, proteases, haemolysin and DNase.
References:
Schoenhofen IC, et al., 1998. An ExeAB complex in the type II secretion pathway of Aeromonas hydrophila: effect of ATP-binding cassette mutations on complex formation and function. Mol Microbiol 29(5):1237-47.
Burr SE, et al., 2001. Type II secretion by Aeromonas salmonicida: evidence for two periplasmic pools of proaerolysin. J Bacteriol 183(20):5956-63.
Li G, et al., 2010. ExeA binds to peptidoglycan and forms a multimer for assembly of the type II secretion apparatus in Aeromonas hydrophila. Mol Microbiol 76(3):772-81.
Maltz M, et al., 2011. The type II secretion system is essential for erythrocyte lysis and gut colonization by the leech digestive tract symbiont Aeromonas veronii. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(2):597-603.


T3SS  

Related genes: acr1; acr2; acrG; acrH; acrR; acrV; aexT; aopB; aopD; aopH; aopN; aopO; aopP; aopX; ascB; ascC; ascD; ascE; ascF; ascG; ascH; ascI; ascJ; ascK; ascL; ascN; ascO; ascP; ascQ; ascR; ascS; ascT; ascU; ascV; ascX; ascY; ati1; ati2; exsA; exsB; exsC; exsD; exsE; sycH; sycO; sycX;
Keywords: Secretion system; Type III secretion system;
Characteristics:
Similar to the Yersinia T3SS.
Figures:
A. salmonicida T3SS model (From: Vanden Bergh P, et al., 2014. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in the light of its type-three secretion system. Microb Biotechnol 7(5):381-400.).



Functions:
A needle-like structure, often described as an "injectisome" that can inject effectors directly into the cytoplasm of target cells.
Five effectors have been described: AexT, AexU, AopP, AopH and AopO.
AexT and AexU are bifunctional toxins that contain a GTPase activating domain, allowing the interruption of host cell-signalling pathways and an ADP-ribosylating domain that can disrupt the host cytoskeleton, leading to the induction of apoptosis.
AopP (NF-κB inhibitor), AopH (tyrosine phosphatase) and AopO (serine/threonine kinase), all are able to interrupt host cell signalling pathways and induce toxicity.
References:
Burr SE, et al., 2002. Evidence for a type III secretion system in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. J Bacteriol 184(21):5966-70.
Burr SE, et al., 2003. The ADP-ribosylating toxin, AexT, from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is translocated via a type III secretion pathway. J Bacteriol 185(22):6583-91.
Yu HB, et al., 2004. A type III secretion system is required for Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1 pathogenesis. Infect Immun 72(3):1248-56.
Sha J, et al., 2005. The type III secretion system and cytotoxic enterotoxin alter the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Infect Immun 73(10):6446-57.
Fehr D, et al., 2006. AopP, a type III effector protein of Aeromonas salmonicida, inhibits the NF-kappaB signalling pathway. Microbiology 152(Pt 9):2809-18.
Sierra JC, et al., 2007. Biological characterization of a new type III secretion system effector from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila-part II. Microb Pathog 43(4):147-60.
Sha J, et al., 2007. Further characterization of a type III secretion system (T3SS) and of a new effector protein from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila--part I. Microb Pathog 43(4):127-46.
Vilches S, et al., 2008. Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 AexT is an ADP-ribosylating toxin secreted through the type III secretion system. Microb Pathog 44(1):1-12.
Vilches S, et al., 2009. Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 type III secretion system expression and regulatory network. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(19):6382-92.


T6SS  

Related genes: hcp; hcp1; vgrG1; vgrG2;
Keywords: Secretion system; Type VI secretion system;
Functions:
A phagetail-spike-like injectisome to translocate virulence determinants directly into the host cell cytoplasm.
Four effectors of the T6SS have so far been characterized, Hcp1, Vgr1, Vgr2 and Vgr3.
Hcp is a powerful effector substrate and once translocated into the targeted host cell cytoplasm, apoptosis ensues following caspase 3 activation.
Hcp paralyzes macrophages to prevent phagocytosis.
Vgr1 is an ADP-ribosylating toxin capable of interrupting the host cell cytoskeleton and inducing apoptosis.
References:
Suarez G, et al., 2008. Molecular characterization of a functional type VI secretion system from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila. Microb Pathog 44(4):344-61.
Suarez G, et al., 2010. A type VI secretion system effector protein, VgrG1, from Aeromonas hydrophila that induces host cell toxicity by ADP ribosylation of actin. J Bacteriol 192(1):155-68.
Suarez G, et al., 2010. Role of Hcp, a type 6 secretion system effector, of Aeromonas hydrophila in modulating activation of host immune cells. Microbiology 156(Pt 12):3678-88.
Sha J, et al., 2013. Evaluation of the roles played by Hcp and VgrG type 6 secretion system effectors in Aeromonas hydrophila SSU pathogenesis. Microbiology 159(Pt 6):1120-35.








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